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publié le 16 août 2017 Beauté › Cheveux

Even if you do trust whoever issued the certificate it doesn't mean much if the network cannot be trusted. A lot of experts claim “HTTPS is broken” and here is one small example of why. If you sit in a coffee shop and go surfing you can quite easily end up being the victim of a man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack. All a potential attacker needs is a copy of Kali Linux, a reasonably powerful laptop and coffee!But wait, you cry, aren't certificates supposed to protect us from exactly this type of thing? Yes but... essentially in our coffee-shop scenario the connection can be forced to run via the MitM laptop using a program called SSLstrip to copy the data as it is passed back and forth to Gmail. We get the traffic from the victim by poisoning the ARP cache and pretending to be the router. SSLStrip forces a victim's browser into communicating via an attacker’s laptop in plain-text over HTTP, with the adversary proxies the modified content from an HTTPS server.The HTTPS between Gmail and you is now readable because you get the decrypted plain text data before it is encrypted and sent to Gmail.

It isn't just coffee shops that present this risk. Frequently, SSL inspection is used in offices of larger companies to monitor staff web activity. Several companies such as FireEye and Bluecoat provide specialised appliances to do this at wirespeed, essentially rendering them unnoticeable. Governments can also do the same using FinFisher or other tools running on ISP networks.This is one of the main reasons I tell people not to check their web mail on their work computer. Employers probably have the right do that written into their employment terms and conditions. Companies do, however, have other more legitimate reasons for breaking SSL scanning for malware-related traffic and data loss prevention (DLP being the new hot ticket item). If you couldn't look inside an encrypted packet you would have no idea what's flowing across the network most of the time other than source and destination.What are the mitigations against all these for the average Joe user? In reality not a lot. Use your common sense when connecting to a Wi-Fi hotspot. Ask yourself:On a larger scale there are a few things that can be done but require effort. If a site provides only HTTPS then sslstrip would fail as it can't fall back to HTTP. Also browsers are becoming better at dealing with these types of issues.

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Some browsers such as Chrome use a new technique called certificate pinning. This technique creates a digital fingerprint for each HTTPS site visited and afterwards compares it to the certificate being presented. It will warn the user if things don’t look as they should. Another method that site owners can use to protect their clients is HSTS. This tells the browser on first visit that the site is HTTPS only and therefore the browser should only ever connect to via HTTPS for a determined length of time.Any attempt to redirect the browser to an HTTP version of the site will be stopped by the browser. The one weakness with this technology is that the browser has to have first visited the genuine site to receive the HSTS response. But if you make sure you've visited a site that supports HSTS on a trusted network, your browser will then ensure it is never redirected to HTTP.A site owner who knows they will only ever use HTTPS and uses HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security) can have their website added to a HSTS preloaded list in the Chromium project. Getting your site added to that list means that Chromium will never allow an unencrypted connection to your site.

A lot of companies who deploy monitoring will often install their own root certificates on company computers. This lets the proxy devices to self-sign certificates for any domain and be trusted by the computers.HTTPS is not the silver-bullet online defence shield a lot of users believe it to be on public networks, meaning activities such as online banking and shopping are done at their own risk.While there are some additional steps you can take, you should - therefore - continue to exercise caution when using a network you don’t control and think about the type of information that you may be sharing with people you may not want to. Something for the Weekend, Sir? I’m on stage with a gun pointing at my heart. There is the sound of nervous shuffling as those sitting in the stalls squirm in their seats. Then silence: the audience quickly falls still and holds it breath. The man armed with the musket is raising the muzzle to take better aim before slowly squeezing the trigger…What? He’s ruining my bullet-catching act. It’s supposed to be the climax of an thrilling evening of astounding feats of prestidigitation, not a light-hearted moment of improv.What’s so frustrating is that I took considerable pains to set all this up, what with the years of rehearsal, hiring all the Chinese acrobats and building a time machine so that I could travel back to 1918 just for this one-off performance. And now my invited member of the audience is cocking it up.

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All he had to do was inspect the gun, a fake antique (with the emphasis on “fake”), help load it and fire one shot in front of a full house of paying spectators. All I have to do is stand dramatically at the other side of the stage and pretend to catch the bullet on a china plate. Simples.Except the fellow coolly hands the old wooden-stocked gun back to one of my assistants, reaches into his coat and pulls out an Uzi sub-machine gun.Before I can point out to him that the Uzi won’t be invented for another 30 years, he has emptied the magazine in less than three seconds in the general direction of my plate.Luckily for me, I had the foresight to take a Swift MOOC a few months ago in which the course project just happened to involve writing a smartphone app to operate a time machine across Bluetooth. Yes, it seemed rather off-the-wall to me too at the time but it just goes to show there is no such thing as coincidence.

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